The answer to the above question is medical genetics, and example of it are clinical geneticists, counselors, and laboratory geneticists. These careers combine DNA technology, medicine for treatments, and counselors guide patients for the improvement of patient’s quality of life.
The category of medicine deals with the analysis and treatment of genes-related problems call medical genetics. Medical genetics is different from human genetics. The branch of scientific research that is or is not applied in medicine is called human genetics.
Medical genetics is related to the applications of genetics to medical care. For example, research on the inheritance of genetic diseases and their causes is put in both human and medical genetics. Still, its diagnosis, treatments, and guiding patients are involved in medical genetics.
The non-medical phenotype, like the genetics of eye color, is involved in human genetics. It does not mean it is always relevant to medical genetics except in some situations like albinism.
The new term for medical genetics is “genetic medicine,” incorporating areas like personalized medicine and gene therapy. Today a new medical field has emerged called Predictive medicine.
Clinical and research are both present in this field. Some of the examples that combine DNA technology and medicine is clinical geneticists, genetics counselors, and clinical laboratory geneticists.
It is a medical specialty that provides diagnostic-related services and counseling for patients or
families based on genetic disorders. Genetic disorders affect anybody at any age.
Some of the genetic disorders are as follows:
- Chromosomal abnormalities: Cause congenital disabilities, mental blockings, and reproductive diseases.
- Familial cancer and cancer-prone syndromes: like inherited breast, colorectal cancer, and neurofibromatosis.
- Congenital disabilities: Neural tube defects and cleft lip and palate.
Individuals with congenital disabilities and disabilities are investigated for genetic factors, and genetic services are also required for pregnancy screening programs and those at high risk.
It is used for clinical examination and analyzed to make the test results
A clinical geneticist reads the following tests:
Carrier testing: It is use for people who want to know their family history about the specific
genetics problems and even know when children are born.
Prenatal diagnosis: When the mother confirms the genetic diagnosis when an abnormality is detect in
the fetus by the ultrasound. Down syndrome is a common genetic problem in this case.
- Newborn screening: It is done when the baby is born. It conducts through multiple tests. For the
- test, take the blood samples from the new baby and test for the disorders. It conducts in
- all parts of the world but mainly in the U.S.
- Pharmacogenomics testing: It is used to check the rate of drug metabolism. The professionals carry out this test because they know what effects on the patient if they take certain drugs.
- In this case, the standard medicine given to patients is Warfarin, which helps carry out this test.
- Identification: Everyone knows about this test, the DNA TEST. It is used for the identity
- identification of an individual, for paternity cases, and law enforcement also uses this to track the Person.
Advantages and disadvantages of testing
DNA technology and medicine tests prove beneficial, and even it has also some disadvantages. After getting the positive result of cancer genetic testing, do not put heavy pressure on your mind and not on your loved ones. While getting a negative result does not mean you won’t develop cancer. So, keep in mind both pros and cons of testing for cancer.
- Give the feeling of relief from uncertainty
- If you have a positive result, it changes your lifestyle. Due to these changes, the risk of cancer
- It gives deep knowledge about cancer risk
- The information got from these results makes informed medical and lifestyle decisions
- Educate the patient’s family members about the potential risk
- Increases the chances of successful results because of the early detection.
- Increases the anxiety and stress level of patients after knowing their conditions
- Tests are not used for the elimination of cancer. Tests only detect the diseases
- In some conditions, the results are uncertain and incomplete
- Clinical Laboratory Geneticists
It does all the tests that are discussed above through the blood samples and other methods like DNA
A genetic counselor guides patients on how the patient treats a condition or disease base on the diagnosis of the geneticist. It includes the job of the counselor to tell the patient’s condition to patients. It is the patient’s right to know about their condition and history. The counselors educate the patients on how to treat with symptoms and how to manage their conditions.
Genetic Nurse is for creating data (genetic or non-genetic) about the risk factor of diseases and records of medical histories. The doctor uses this data for a diagnosis.
Advantages and Disadvantages of using the DNA technology
- DNA technology is used in various medical fields, like genetic engineering. Genetic engineering is also call recombinant DNA. Using different species makes new DNA molecules used in agriculture, science, and medicine.
- DNA techniques also use for developing vaccines. By using vaccines, it makes our body believes that it is fighting against the harmless virus. Due to this, the harmful virus goes to our body; then, our body makes a defense system against them.
- For example, it is insulin and human growth hormone. Everyone knows insulin is used for diabetic people, human growth hormone is used for dwarfism people. It gives the correct number of hormones in the body.
Advantages of developing the vaccine by using DNA techniques
- Production cost is used comparatively low to protein vaccine
- It is efficient and effective for the stimulating antibody responses
- It generates the T-cell responses that kill the cancerous cells or remove the disease that is cause by bacteria and viruses.
- It is quicker than regular vaccines.
- The genes that control cell growth are disturb
- Increase of risk of tolerance to the antigens
- Limited protein immunogens
- Besides medicine, it also covers other fields like agriculture.
- DNA technology in agriculture
- One knows about GMOs (Genetically Modified Organisms) for creating new genes from artificial
- things. Its practical use is to get high yields by growing larger plants, improving crops’ nutritional content, and controlling the pest.
Advantages in agriculture
- Use for increasing the growth
- Make more tasteful and nutritious food
- Less amount of pesticides are used in it
- GMOs increase the risk of cancer in a person
- Some people are allergic to the food
- The career combines DNA technology and medicine for diagnosis, treatment, and taking care of patients with genetic problems.
Its primary purpose of it is
- Improves the patient’s quality of life
- Manage symptoms
- Guide patients on how to overcome the difficulties